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Sunday, May 7

Sunday, March 5

  1. page Cosmophasis umbratica edited ... Mr. Leon Woon Wei Jie, Mr. Liew Zhiying Ivan x-Links to other types of species pages12. Addit…
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    Mr. Leon Woon Wei Jie, Mr. Liew Zhiying Ivan
    x-Links to other types of species pages12. Additional Notes
    ImageInformation found on this page may not be comprehensive, for any additional new findings, feel free to contact me and I will update accordingly.
    Image
    16 and
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    Lim personally.
    x-Contact13. Contact
    Rion Huang
    (view changes)
    3:54 am
  2. page Cosmophasis umbratica edited ... ðIt takes two peaks to tango: the importance of UVB and UVA in sexual signalling Other resear…
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    ðIt takes two peaks to tango: the importance of UVB and UVA in sexual signalling
    Other researches done using Cosmophasis umbratica:
    {Slide1.JPG} Image 16:Image 16 (removed): A spectrometry
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    Leon Woon)
    {10 LSM 4267 Group 10 Poster.jpg} Image 17:

    Image 17 (removed):
    Another project
    x-Literature and References10. Literature & References
    Relevant published studies by A/P Li Daiqin (in chronological order)
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    Mr. Leon Woon Wei Jie, Mr. Liew Zhiying Ivan
    x-Links to other types of species pages12. Additional Notes
    This webpage is still under construction. A final edit will be done by December 2016.Image 16 and 17 (research posters) has been taken down due to request as it consist of publishable data. Should you wish you find out more about the researches done, please kindly contact Dr. Matthew Lim personally.
    x-Contact13. Contact
    Rion Huang
    Last updated: 6 Dec 20165 Mar 2017
    [[include component="comments" page="Betta pugnax" limit="10"]]
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    3:50 am

Saturday, January 7

  1. page Amphilophus citrinellus edited ... {945px-Cichlid_pharyngeal_jaw_apparatus.png} Figure 7: Location of the pharyngeal jaw. Photo c…
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    {945px-Cichlid_pharyngeal_jaw_apparatus.png} Figure 7: Location of the pharyngeal jaw. Photo credit: Mabuchi et al. Used under CC BY 2.0
    While discussing the appearance of the Midas cichlid, it is important to discuss another part of its morphology, the pharyngeal jaw, a second set of jaws found in Labriod fishes (Suborder Labroidei). These pharyngeal jaws are found just in front of the throat [10](see Figure 7 above) and they play an important role in the diet of the Midas cichlids as they can possess specialized dentition which influences how effective the fish is at processing different diets.
    {Phyrangeal jaws.jpg}*Due to problems obtaining permission to use the figure, Figure 8: Papilliform lower pharyngeal jaw (left) and molariform lower pharyngeal jaw (right) of Hericthys minckleyi as representative of those found8 has been removed, please refer to Figure 2 in cichlids. Photo credit: Darrin C Hulsey published by The Royal Society. Used with permission from corresponding author, pending permission from publisherthe paper hyperlinked here*
    For the Midas cichilid, there are two morphs of pharyngeal jaws, the papilliform morph with pointed narrow teeth and are typically thinner and the molariform morph which is typically thicker with thick flat teeth [10]. The image above shows the lower phrayngeal jaws of both morphs taken from a species known as Minkley's cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi) (papilliform on the left, molariform on the right) as an example of how the jaws look like.
    As mentioned, the pharyngeal jaws can play a important role in the diet of the Midas cichlid and this has been confirmed by studies that found that individuals with molariform teeth were more effective in handling hard shelled prey whereas individuals with papilliform teeth were more effective in handling soft prey [10]. Further evidence of the jaw's influence was found by observing the growth of Midas cichlids in different environments as all juveniles have a papilliform morph and the proportion of adults with a molariform morph was dependent on how many snails were available to the fish [9]. The more snails there were, the higher the proportion of molariform adults, suggesting that diet drives the morphology of the phrayngeal jaw as well. These differences in pharynageal jaw morph also correspond with differences in body shape with molariform individuals being observed to have a blunter head and deeper body compared to papilliform individuals [10].
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    The tree includes Cichlid genera from Neotropics and use non-cichlid Families Percidae and Embiotocidae together with etropline, pytochochromine, and pseudocrenilabrine Cichlid genera as outgroups [34]. Supports for each node are listed with Bremer supports from above the branch and jackknife resampling proportions (only above 50% listed) listed below the tree.
    As can be seen in the tree above, the genus Amphilophus is nested within the tribe Heroini and the node has high supports with 100% resampling from jackknife procedures and a Bremer support of 8. However, it should be noted that the nodes leading up to the node separating Amphilophus and Archocentrus have relatively weak supports (circled in blue), with the node separating Amphilophus and Archocentrus from Hypsophrys and Parachromis having less than 50% resampling from jackknife procedures and a Bremer support of 1. As such more data may find Amphilophus in a different part of the phylogeny tree but likely still within tribe Heroini as the nodes separating Heroini from other tribes have very strong support.
    {Phylogenetic tree species.jpg}*Due to problems obtaining permission to use the Figure, Figure 14: Bayesian phylogenetic tree using cytochrome b sequence. Photo credit: Concehiro-Perez et al, published by Elsevier. Annotations (red14 has been removed. Please refer to Figures 1 and blue lines) added by Lee Juin Bin. Used with permission from corresponding author, pending permission2 from publisherthe paper hyperlinked here*
    To look at the relationship between species, the phylogenetic trees above are Bayesian trees between Cichlid species created using the cytochrome b sequence data that end in voucher specimens [35]. The authors of these trees found the genus Amphilophus within a group Amphilophines (marked with a blue line on the left tree) and the relationships within the group are shown in the tree on the right. Interestingly, this tree reveals that Amphilophus is a polyphyletic group [35] (members labelled by red lines) and thus is not a valid taxa, suggesting that classifications of species in genera have to be looked at again. A possible reason for the misclassification has been suggested that classifications have been confounded by convergences in morphology [35]. It should however be noted that Bayesian analysis are only considered to adequately model phylogeny if the model used for the priors either incorporates prior knowledge or manages to model ignorance effectively [36] and the model for priors used in this phylogeny analysis was not stated. As such further research should be done to confirm if the genus is truly polyphyletic. Furthermore, the above tree does not include the arrow cichlid (Amphilophus zaliosus), a species known to be found in the Nicaraguan lake basins together with the Midas cichlid [1].
    Another point to note when discussing the phylogeny of the Midas cichlid is that new species are still being described at this point [6] and thus prior analysis may actually have lumped multiple species together into a single species for analysis. Furthermore, a study by Geiger et al (2010) found that morphologically distinct specimens from the same lake are more genetically alike compared to morphologically similar specimens from different lakes, showing rapid convergent evolution. This suggests that the Midas cichlid is capable of rapid speciation and as such specimens collected from different areas would be expected to be genetically different. This has implications on the phylogeny as phylogeny trees created from one locality may not be valid for the other areas that the Midas cichlid are found in.
    (view changes)
    10:13 am

Sunday, December 25

  1. page Shorea macroptera edited {smacrop_title.jpg} Cover image adapted from Louise Neo. Introduction Have you ever seen som…
    {smacrop_title.jpg}
    Cover image adapted from Louise Neo.
    Introduction
    Have you ever seen some very tall and large trees while taking a walk in the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve or in Macritchie Nature Trail? Many of these trees are dipterocarps, which are a dominant group of trees in Southeast Asia. This page will teach you about one of the dipterocarp trees, Shorea macroptera. Shorea macroptera is a tree that is native to Singapore's primary forests . It is very large, growing up to 50 metres tall and up to 1.5 metres wide . Read on to find out more about what is so special about this tree!
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    Shorea macroptera is naturally found in well-drained lowland rainforest, from sea level to heights of up to 900 metres above sea level . It has been observed to grow in hilly parts of the forest especially. In Singapore, S. macroptera can be found in the primary forest patches of our nature reserves, namely the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and the Central Catchment Nature Reserve.
    {forest_jimmytan.jpg}
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    Reserve. Image under Creative Commons license from Jimmy
    Reproduction and Seed Predation
    The flowers of S. macroptera are pollinated by flower thrips . Shorea macroptera, like others in its family, are peculiar in that they participate in a phenomenon known as general flowering and masting, where multiple tropical species flower and fruit simultaneously, leading to large amounts of fruits being produced in a relatively short period of time . It is quite a sight to see many of the trees sporting brightly-coloured flowers and fruits at the same time. This usually occurs after a dry period or El Nino event. Shorea macroptera thus only flowers and fruits with such masting events, every two to ten years . It is unknown why this occurs, but one hypothesis is that by doing so, the trees flood potential predators of their fruits with too much food, hence satiating the predators and allowing some of the fruits and seeds to escape predation and germinate. This is known as the Predator Satiation Hypothesis. Many studies have attempted to test this hypothesis but the verdict is still undecided. Many animals, ranging from mammals to insects, eat the fruits of S. macroptera. Mammals such as macaques and squirrels eat the seed of the fruit, while certain beetles and moths lay their eggs within the seed so that their larvae can eat the seed from inside out when they hatch .
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    Figure 5. Original description of S. macroptera
    Type Specimen
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    in London.
    {sm_typespecimen.jpg}
    Figure 6. Holotype
    A picture of the holotype specimen of S. macroptera. Source:macroptera can be seen from this link: http://www.kew.org/herbcatimg/288023.jpg (Permission pending)..
    Subspecies
    Several subspecies of S. macroptera have been defined based on morphological differences in different geographical populations, such as S. macroptera ssp. baillonii, S. macroptera ssp. sandakanensis, S. macroptera ssp. macropterifolia, and S. macroptera ssp. macroptera . The subspecies that this webpage is based on is S. macroptera ssp. macroptera, which is found in Peninsular Thailand, Malaya, Singapore, Singkep, Lingga, and East Sumatra.
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    Phylogenetic relationships within the Dipterocarpaceae have also been studied. One study used chloroplast nucleotides sequences trnL trnF spacer, trnL intron, and matK to examine the relationships within the Dipterocarpoideae, a subfamily within Dipterocarpaceae, and found that the genera Vatica, Cotylelobium, Stemonoporus, Anisoptera, Vateria, and Upuna formed one clade, genus Dipterocarpus formed another clade, and genus Dryobalanops formed yet another clade . The genus Shorea, however, did not form a monophyletic clade, instead being separated into two clades. Shorea macroptera is closely related to Shorea acuminata, Shorea parvifolia and Shorea quadrinervis, and belongs to the Red Meranti clade. However, this study used maximum likelihood and the support values are not very high as seen from the phylogenetic tree below. Nodes generally require maximum likelihood support values of 90 and above to show strong support, but the support values for the more recent clades that S. macroptera is in in the phylogenetic tree constructed from the study are rather low, indicating poor clade stability. Hence, these results are to be taken with a pinch of salt till they can be confirmed with further studies.
    {smacrop_tree.jpg}
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    (2006) . (Permission pending).
    Acknowledgements
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    sincerely thank Jimmy Tan, Louise Neo,
    References
    National Parks Board (2016) Heritage Trees: Meranti. National Parks Board Singapore, Government of Singapore, Singapore. https://www.nparks.gov.sg/gardens-parks-and-nature/heritage-trees/ht-2014-233 (Accessed 9 November 2016).
    (view changes)
    8:49 pm
  2. page Shorea macroptera edited {smacrop_title.jpg} Introduction ... trees are Dipterocarps, dipterocarps, which are ... …
    {smacrop_title.jpg}
    Introduction
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    trees are Dipterocarps,dipterocarps, which are
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    of the Dipterocarpdipterocarp trees, Shorea
    Biology and Ecology
    Habitat
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    Synonyms: Shorea baillonii Heim (1891), Shorea sandakanensis Sym. (1938)
    Etymology
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    to the Dipterocarpdipterocarp family and Di-ptero-carpdi-ptero-carp refers to
    Taxonomy
    Linnaean Classification
    (view changes)
    8:26 pm

Thursday, December 22

  1. page Centropus sinensis edited ... 2. Description 2.1 Adults {25 label.jpg} Figure 2. Photo and Description of C. sinensis A…
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    2. Description
    2.1 Adults
    {25 label.jpg} Figure 2. Photo and Description of C. sinensis Adult. (Photo © JosephMorlan 2016, used by permission) edited by Lau Jun Jie.
    Both the male and female are similar in appearances and they can grow up to 45-50 cm in length, including the tail[10]. They have black, glossed plumage on the head, mantle and underparts. The gloss may varies from glossy blue or purple black to dull sooty black. Wings and back are chestnut red in color while under wing coverts are black in color. Their tails are long and broad; and are glossy greenish-black in color. Feet and beaks are black in color while their iris varies from red to brown. There is no seasonal variation in plumage[11][1]. Like all cuckoos,Greater Coucal has zygodactyl feet[12]. To know more about the body structure or topology of bird, click here.
    Zygodactyl Feet
    (view changes)
    5:29 am

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